Timothy B. Wilder

Rare Books


320 Weymoth Drive

Rochester, NY 14625-1919

(585) 385-2386



Philosophy: Recent Arrivals


"the nastiest—and most absurd—philosophical dispute…in the United States…."

ABBOT, FRANCIS ELLINGWOOD. Professor Royce's Libel. A Public Appeal for Redress to the Corporation and Overseers of Harvard University. Boston, Mass.: George H. Eliot, 141 Franklin St., 1891. 1st ed. 48 pp. Original stiff printed wraps, darkened and a bit dust-soiled.  [With:] ABBOT. Is Not Harvard Responsible for the Conduct of her Professors, as well as of her Students? A Public Remonstrance Addressed to the Board of Overseers of Harvard University.  Boston: Geo. H. Ellis, Printer, 1892. 1st ed. 20 pp. Printed wraps. Together, 2 items, 8vo., very good. Shelf number neatly penned in red ink at head of front wrap of both pamphlets, contemporary inscription on the front wrap of first, "The Melbys[?]/from/T.M.H.".  $650.00   In 1881 Abbot earned the second doctorate conferred by Harvard in Philosophy. But, like Peirce, he was unable to secure an academic post. In 1888 he was invited to lecture at Harvard during Royce's absence (and at Royce's request). In 1890 the substance of these lectures was published as The Way Out of Agnosticism. "For some reason…Royce [now] set out to annihilate Abbot's reputation…. he wrote a long and devastating review…. He accused Abbot of an unconscious and blundering borrowing from Hegel, but more importantly, issued a 'professional warning' against Abbot's 'philosophical pretensions'…. Abbot's attempt at vindicating himself dragged on until 1892, culminating in a public appeal to the Harvard Corporation and Board of Overseers."—Kuklick (1977). The second title here shreds the spurious distinction between "professional" and "professorial" warnings that the Overseers had used to justify their inaction on Abbot's earlier petition. No matter, his pleas were not successful: Royce was promoted to full professor on the same day Abbot's claims were finally dismissed by the Board. Ironically, only Peirce among his peers had come to Abbot's defense. Ten years later, following publication of his magnum opus, The Syllogistic Philosophy, Abbot committed suicide at his wife's grave. Posterity has been kinder to him: "Royce's enthusiasm for idealism led him to extend his criticism beyond proper philosophical limits and to engage in personal attacks on Abbot. In view of twentieth century philosophical developments…it is clear that Abbot was far more original than Royce would admit."—Joseph Blau, in EP. These two pamphlets are very scarce.



ALCOTT, A. B[RONSON]. Observations on the Principles and Methods of Infant Instruction. Boston: Published by Carter & Hendee, 1830. 1st ed. 8vo. 27, [1 (blank)] pp. Sewn, retaining the original blue front printed wrap (dust-soiled, small chips at edges). Fore- and bottom margins of text uncut, fore-edge frayed with some dust-soiling, last leaf creased with clean tear. A good+, wide-margined copy, and rare with the wrapper.   SOLD   Alcott's first separate publication, printed at his own expense. While widely held by institutions, this pamphlet is rare in trade. Seven Gables Bookshop's More First Books By American Authors (N.Y. 1972) offered a comparable copy for $400: "In May of 1830, [Alcott] married Abigail May and the couple received an anonymous wedding present of $2,000. Of this $700 went to pay the groom's debts and $250 was spent on the printing of Observations in an edition of 1,000 copies." BAL 101. American Imprints (1830) 49. 



BARRATT, ALFRED. Physical Ethics or the Science of Action. An Essay. London & Edinburgh: Williams & Norgate, 1869. 1st ed. 8vo. vi, 387 pp. Orig. cloth. $175.00  Barratt (1844-1881) was something of a polymath, "achieving the unequalled distinction of five first classes 'within four years and two months' from beginning residence" at Balliol College, Oxford. "The book on 'Physical Ethics' is a remarkable performance for a youth of twenty-four, showing wide reading and marked literary power. The leading idea is the unity of all knowledge and the necessity of bringing ethics into harmony with the physical sciences. The theory resembles, though in certain points it diverges from, that of Mr. Herbert Spencer, whom the author recognizes as 'the greatest philosopher of the age.' Barratt describes himself as an egoist, and in a vigorous article called 'The Suppression of Egoism' defends his theory against Mr. Sidgwick."--Leslie Stephen, in DNB. Barratt's only other book, Physical Metempiric was edited by Carveth Read and published posthumously (1883); both books are decidedly uncommon.



BRUCKER, [JOHANN] JACOB. Otium Vindelicum, sive Meletematum historico-philosophicorum triga.  Augsburg, D. R. Mertz & J. J. Mertz, 1729. 1st ed. [38 (including blank leaf)], 276, [14] pp. Index. Engraved title vignette. [Bound after:] GRAEVIUS, JOHANN GEORG. Cohors Musarum, sive historia rei literariae, nec non historia bibliothecalis. His accedunt ejusdem Excellentissimi Viri Synopsis Rei Nummariae & Ratio Temporum, cum duobus Indicibus Rerum & Auctorum locupletissimis. Accurante Wolpherdo van Bueren…. Utrecht: Jacob van Poolsum, 1715. [14], 384, [24] pp. Index. Engraved frontispiece & title vignette. Together, 2 vols in 1. 12mo. 19th century black paste-paper boards with leather spine label, edges stained red. Some rubbing and small wear to binding extremities. Sheets of Brucker lightly browned and foxed, blank slip neatly pasted over old library stamp on verso of Graevius title, noting in pencil that the volume is a duplicate. $450.00   An early work by Brucker (1696-1770) devoted to ancient philosophy. Later he would produce Historia critica philosophiae (5 vols, 1742-44), "the first major history of philosophy" (Beck) and a work of considerable import to the German Enlightenment. Graevius (1632-1703) was a distinguished philologist and classical scholar. The present work is a miscellany of antiquarian and literary studies, including a lengthy (pp. 172-352) history of libraries, observations on Roman coinage, &c. The frontispiece engraved by G[ilbert] Schouten depicts the interior of a library. The work by Brucker appears to be quite rare, at least outside of Germany: RLIN and OCLC together record a number of copies of the Graevius but only a single copy of the Brucker (at Northwestern) and it is not in COPAC. Nor is Otium Vindelicum among the Brucker titles in the Widener Shelflist or the Hoose Library catalogue. The Karlsruhe database records copies of Otium Vindelicum at 13 locations (including the British Library).



BUFFIER [CLAUDE]. First Truths, and the Origin of Our Opinions, Explained. With an Inquiry Into the Sentiments of Modern Philosophers Relative to Our Primary Ideas of Things. Translated from the French…. To Which is Prefixed a Detection of the Plagiarism, Concealment, and Ingratitude of the Doctors Reid, Beattie, and Oswald. London: Printed for J. Johnson, 1780. 8vo. [4], lix, [1], 438, [lxv]-lxx [i.e. lxxi] pp. Index. Contemporary calf (worn) with red leather spine label, hinges cracked but holding. Some light browning and foxing, mostly confined to margins, fore-edge cropped a bit close, occasionally touching side notes. Bold name of a Bloomsbury owner dated 1807 on title-page.   $375.00   Jessop, p. 102. Chuo III:57: "Remarks on the philosophical writings of Descartes, Locke, Malebranche, Le Clerc, Crouzais and Regis." First edition in English of a work first published in 1724, one of the earliest statements of the philosophy of common sense. "A philosophy of common sense is a natural reaction to the fact, or to the threat, of philosophical paradox or skepticism. The French Jesuit Claude Buffier (1661-1737) saw us as threatened, since Descartes, with skepticism about all matters of fact beyond the range of our consciousness…. What we need is unimpeachable authority for the fundamental convictions shared by all normal men…. Common sense supplies it. It puts us into assured possession of such 'first truths' as that there is a material world, that our minds are incorporeal, [and] that we are capable of free agency…."—EP. Buffier "was…one of the earliest to recognize the psychological as distinguished from the metaphysical side of Descartes' principals, and to use it …as the basis of an analysis of the human mind similar to that enjoined by Locke. In this he has anticipated the spirit and method as well as many of the results of Reid and the Scottish school."—EB. Buffier views "common sense" not as collective wisdom but as an inborn capacity, a separate sense analogous to that of sight or hearing, that is similar to, for example, a "moral sense." The Preface here, by the anonymous translator, is new; while most of it is devoted to exposing the errors of Reid, Beattie and Oswald, the deepest scorn is reserved for "the Atheist" Hume. For a discussion of Locke's influence upon Buffier, see "The Diffusion and Influence of Locke's 'Essay' in France" by Gabriel Bonnon (in A Locke Miscellany edited by Jean Yolton, especially pp. 81-83).



BUHLE, JEAN-GOTTLIEB. Histoire de la Philosophie Moderne, depuis la Renaissance des Lettres jusqu'a Kant; Précédée d'un Abrégé de la Philosophie Ancienne, depuis Thalès jusqu' au XIV.e  Siècle. Traduit de L'Allemande par A.J.L. Jourdan. Tome Premier [-Sixieme]. Paris: F.I. Fournier, Mars 1816. 6 volumes in 7 (vol. II in two parts). 8vo. Contemporary bright orange paste-paper wraps with printed paper spine labels (light wear). Mild shelfwear, small shelf label at foot of each spine. A pleasing set, fore- and bottom margins uncut.  $850.00  First French edition of Buhle's monumental (4,000+ pp.) Geschicthe der neueren Philosophie (6 vols, Göttingen 1800-1804) which was instrumental in making Kant's work known in France and, indeed, Britain: Dugald Stewart relied in part on this translation for the account of Kant which appears in his General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical and Political Philosophy (1816-1821). "Buhle writes as a disciple of Kant but with a leaning toward Jacobi….. [He] evinces great reading, and has, with critical insight, instituted valuable investigations, especially in the department of the history of philosophy. His Gesc. der neueren Philosophie contains many choice extracts from rare works."—Ueberweg. The work is very thorough: the fifth volume is devoted mainly to British philosophy and includes lengthy sections on Berkeley (100 pp.), Hume (50 pp.), Hutcheson (15 pp.) and concludes with a 300 page section on the economic theories of Hume and Adam Smith. The final volume is devoted to 18th century French (pp. 1-372) and German (pp. 373-610) philosophy. RLIN and OCLC together record a total of 10 sets to which should be added one at the Hoose Library, University of Southern California.



CHASTELLUX, [F.J.] DE. De la Félicité Publique, ou Considérations sur le Sort des Hommes dan les Différentes Époques de l'Histoire. Nouvelle Édition, Augmentée de Notes Inédites de Voltaire. Paris: A.-A. Renouard, 1822 [-1821].  3rd ed. 2 vols. 8vo. [4], 350; [4], 332. Index in each volume. Contemporary ¾ leather and marbled boards, spine direct-lettered in gilt. Spines lightly rubbed, moderate foxing, one leaf in volume II pulled and slightly frayed at edges.  $275.00   This edition not in Kress. Goldsmiths 23385. Einaudi 1038. It is said that Chastellux learned English so that he could read Hume in the original. (Hume is cited several times in the text here and a lengthy note (II: pp. 135-136) supports him against the criticisms of Wallace.) First published in 1772, this work argues that human society can be perfected through reform and that the purpose of government is to effect "the greatest happiness of the greatest number." Citing this work as one of a number that anticipate Malthus in the belief that "population will always increase to the limit set by the supply of means of subsistence," Schumpeter characterizes it as "not without merit." The question of population trends during different epochs, being considered an index to whether societies were progressing or in a state of decline, occupied many notable figures in England and France during the mid 18th century. No editions in Jessop or Chuo.



GROTE, GEORGE.  Fragments on Ethical Subjects. Being a Selection from His Posthumous Papers [edited by Alexander Bain]. London: John Murray, 1876. 1st ed. 8vo. vii, 5, 230 pp., plus Mr. Murray's General List of  Books (32 pp., dated January 1875) at end. Original cloth with leather spine labels (rubbed). Light shelfwear, a signature carelessly separated resulting in short, marginal tear to one leaf. Still, a very good copy, mostly unopened. With the signature of one W. Grote on title.  $175.00   Comprises six essays, chiefly on ancient philosophy, including two on the ethics of Aristotle. Metz calls this Grote's "only systematic work" of philosophy, which emphasizes "the social character of morality more effectively than the [earlier] utilitarians had done."



HAZLITT, WILLIAM.  Essays On the Principles of Human Action; On the Systems of Hartley and Helvetius; And on Abstract Ideas. Edited by his son [William Hazlitt, Jr.]. London: John Miller [1836]. 2nd ed. 12mo. [6], 176 pp. Disbound, name erased from title, textblock a little browned at edges but very sound.  $100.00   Second edition of Hazlitt's first, and philosophically most important, book. The text is taken from the author's corrected manuscript of the 1805 edition. The essay on Abstract Ideas (pp. 139-176) appears here for the first time. "In the England of 1830…a humanism so darkly paradoxical found little favor; but his powers as a thinker have been increasingly recognized, and he appears today as the versatile Montaigne of his age, often prefiguring in his essays the dynamacist philosophies of Nietzsche, Bergson, William James, and Freud."—EP.



(HEGEL.) GABLER, GEORG ANDREAS. System der theoretischen Philosophie. Erster Band. Die Propädeutik der Philosophie [all published]. Erlangen: Palm'schen Verlag-Buchhandlung, 1827.  1st ed. 8vo. xxxii, 447, [1] pp. Contemporary blue paper wraps over stiff boards. Hinges rubbed, light shelfwear. An attractive copy, internally fine and entirely unopened.  $200.00   Steinhauer 0933. A significant exposition of the Phenomenology, issued, during Hegel's lifetime, by a former student at Jena. It "set[s] forth in a clear light the points of Hegel's Phenomenology which could be of service for introduction to philosophical study."—Erdmann §329, 10. This first part is subtitled Kritik des Bewusstsenns; a projected second volume never appeared. Referring to Gabler, Hegel is reported to have said "the one man who best understood him misunderstood him." (Butler & Seiler, Hegel: The Letters, p. 533). Be that as it may, Hegel thanked Gabler warmly after this book appeared: "…your work…combines thoroughness of speculative insight with definiteness and clarity of development and exposition. I especially regard the digression in which you treat of Herbart's and…Aristotle's philosophical results as models of exposition. It is greatly to be wished that you treat other issues on the agenda of the day in the same manner."—letter of March 4, 1828 (ibid, pp. 534-535). Gabler succeeded to Hegel's chair at Berlin in 1835, becoming, along with Göschel, the nucleus of the Old Hegelians and leading the attack on Strauss' Das Leben Jesu (1835). Gabler also published Die hegel'sche Philosophie in 1843.



"…and thus a dog would be the best Christian…."

(HEGEL.) HINRICHS, HERMANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM.  Die Religion im inneren Verhältnisse zur Wissenschaft. Nebst Darstellung und Beurtheilung der von Jacobi, Kant, Fichte und Schelling gemachten Versuche, diesselbe wissenschaftlich zu erfassen, und nach ihrem Hauptinhalte zu entwickeln. Mit einen Vorwort von G.F.W. Hegel. Heidelberg  Neue Akademische Buchhandlung von Carl Groos, 1822. 1st ed. Small 8vo. viii, xxviii, 263, [1 (errata)] pp. Contemporary black paste-paper boards with red leather spine label. Small wear to spine extremities, corners bumped. Two early signatures neatly penned on title, light foxing and occasional light pencil scoring and notes in text. Withal, a very good, tight copy. $450.00  Steinhauer 922. Hegel's student at Heidelberg, Hinrichs subsequently became a professor at Breslau and Halle, where "he can be considered the first person to teach Hegel's theories on an academic level, thereby founding the Hegelian school."--Wiedmann, Hegel. (See also Chapter XVIII, "Hinrichs and the Rise of the Hegelian School" in Butler & Seiler, Hegel: The Letters.) It is in the preface here that Hegel delivers his sarcastic criticism of Schleiermacher's dictum that the essence of religion consists in the feeling of absolute dependence: "If feelings are to constitute…the essence of man, then he would be on the same level as animals, for it is inherent in animals to…live according to feelings. If religion in a human being is founded only on a feeling, the latter has no other function than to be the feeling of his dependency, and thus a dog would be the best Christian, for it possesses this feeling most intensely and lives mainly in it." In the words of Pinkard, "There it was: Hegel had accused his distinguished Berlin colleague of holding completely ridiculous, even insipid ideas…. That particular remark became instantly and widely cited…. Schleiermacher was understandably deeply offended by it, and Schleiermacher's friends never forgave Hegel for it. For many of those predisposed against Hegel, this was just the last straw." RLIN and OCLC record a total of  8 copies. Reprinted in the Aetas Kantiana series (1970).



HEMSTERHUIS, FRANÇOIS.  Oeuvres Philosophiques. Nouvelle Édition, Augmentée de Plusieurs Pièces Inédites, de Notes et d'une Étude sur L'Auteur et sa Philosophie, par L.S.P. Meyboom. Avec Planches, Vignettes et Portrait. En Trois Volumes. À Leuwarde: Chez W. Eekhoff, 1846 [-1846, -1850]. 1st ed. Three volumes in 1. 12mo. 11, [1], 224; [4], 236; [4], 227, [1] pp., with the half titles to volumes I and III (?only), and with printed publisher's prospectus/subscription form tipped-in at front.  Several engraved vignettes tipped-in in volume I, 2 fldg. plates (browned) in vol. II, frontis. portrait in vol. III. Modern buckram, spine lettered in gilt. Cheap paper has yellowed slightly, a handful of leaves in volumes II and III with a few lines underlined in pen. Small stamp of a Dutch professor on title and occasionally elsewhere. Withal, a very sound copy.  $150.00   EB says this is "the best collected edition" while EP calls it "[t]he latest complete, but rather inaccurate, edition…."  Uncommon, especially with the publisher's prospectus (dated in type December, 1844), which has the name of a single Leyden purchaser penciled in.



HERBART, JOHANN FRIEDRICH. Sämmtliche Werke. Herausgegeben von G. Hartenstein. Leipzig: Voss, 1850-52. 1st ed. 12 vols. 8vo. Frontis. portrait in volume I. Contemporary "treed calf" paper over boards with black leather spine labels. Light wear to spine extremities, one volume with tiny chip at head of spine. Handsome set, bright and clean.  $1,000  With a chronological listing of Herbart's publications, and reviews of his writings, in the final volume.




[JACOBI. F.H.] Ueber die Lehre des Spinoza in Briefen an den Herrn Moses Mendelssohn. Neue vermehrte Ausgabe. Breslau: Gottl. Löwe, 1789. Small 8vo. li, [1], 440 pp. Frontis. portrait, engraved vignette portrait on titlepage and at conclusion of text. Somewhat later(?) plain black boards backed with binder's cloth, hand-lettered spine label (worn). Some minor wear to binding, spotty foxing throughout, some signatures a bit browned.   $600.00    First published in 1785, this work initiated a controversy that ultimately involved many of the leading intellectual figures in Germany, including Goethe and Kant (who weighed in with two essays). The correspondence between Jacobi and Mendelssohn was occasioned by a biography that Mendelssohn was preparing of his friend Lessing. In these private letters Jacobi charged that Lessing had confided to him shortly before his death that he was a "Spinozist." Their (unauthorized) publication by Jacobi represented a serious charge inasmuch as Spinoza was widely viewed as an atheist. Such was Lessing's reputation, however, that the work had the effect opposite to what Jacobi had envisioned: it led to a reevaluation of Spinoza. Indeed, it "laid the foundation of a thorough study of Spinoza in Germany." (Erdmann, §272, 1). This second edition of 1789 is noteworthy for several reasons. It is considerably enlarged, including a lengthy new foreword (vii-li), Jacobi's translation of "Diokles an Diotime über den Atheismus" (pp. 307-327) by Hemsterhuis, and extracts from Del Infinito, apparently the first appearance of anything by Bruno in German. It was also the edition studied carefully by three students at Tübingen, Hölderlin, Hegel and Schelling: "[t]he 'pantheism controversy' made an indelible mark on the three friends."  (Pinkard, pp. 30-31). The engraved portrait is of Spinoza and the two vignettes are portraits of Lessing & Mendelssohn, and of Jacobi. Wolf 829. 



KAUFMANN, PETER. Der Tempel der Wahrheit, oder Die Wissenschaft für immerdar fortschreitender Erkenntniss;  enthaltend die Grundlage und Elemente eines Systemes, um zu absoluter Gewissheit in allen Dingen zu gelangen; bestehend in einer immerdauernden Freuden-Botschaft, und dem beharrlichen Herolde einer bessern Zeit, an alle Menschen, die eines guten Willens sind, oder begehren, eines solchen zu werden. Cincinnati: herausgegeben in Teutscher und Englisher Sprache. Verkauft und zu haben bey Truman & Spofford und Eggers & Wilde. Canton, O., Beym Verfasser., 1858. 1st ed. 8vo. vi, [7]-348 pp. Orig. cloth. Back board waterstained and soiled along spine and edges, covers a little warped, with small tear at head of spine. Faint tide-mark in bottom margin throughout, not affecting text. Some light dust-soiling, a little heavier on several pages (pp. 10-11, 276-77), crease at lower corner of title. Still, text block tight, sound and generally clean, a better copy than the description might indicate. $250.00 The Temple of Truth, Kaufmann's magnum opus, was issued simultaneously in English and German. Christian perfectionist, social reformer, early American Hegelian and journalist, Kaufmann immigrated to the U.S. around 1820. He was instrumental in starting the first American Labor for Labor store, in Philadelphia , later joining the "Economites," George Rapp's community on the Ohio River. Thereafter he was involved in the founding of the short-lived, communistic "Society of the United Germans of Teutonia" at Petersburg, Ohio. In 1831 he settled in Canton, Ohio where for the next 38 years he was a vibrant social and intellectual force in the community. The present work found many readers (including an enthusiastic Emerson), no doubt due in part to Kaufmann's declaration to use the proceeds to found an institution for "the benefit of man and the relief of suffering humanity."  For a good summary of Kaufmann's career, see Easton, Hegel's First American Followers, Chapter 4: "Peter Kaufmann on Social Perfection and Dialectics" (pp. 95-122).



(KIES, MARIETTA.)  In Memoriam Marietta Kies A.M., Ph.D. December 31, 1855-July 20, 1899. Boston: Printed by Frank Wood, 1899. 1st ed. 8vo. 77 pp. Frontis. portrait & 2 plates. Orig. cloth. A couple of leaves carelessly separated resulting in short, marginal tears but still very good, partly unopened.  SOLD   Miss Kies was the sixth American woman to earn a Ph.D. in Philosophy. She studied informally with W.T. Harris at the Concord School of Philosophy and with George S. Morris and John Dewey at the University of Michigan. She taught successively at Mt. Holyoke, Mills, Colorado College and Butler. In addition to editing a compilation of Harris' writings, she published two original works on social ethics, The Ethical Principle (Ann Arbor 1892) and Institutional Ethics (Boston 1894). She was a noteworthy interpreter of Hegel whose promising career was cut short by an untimely death. For further information see two papers by Dorothy Rogers, "Private Virtue in Public Life: Marietta Kies’ Challenge to Hegel" (2001) and "Hegel and his 'Victims' on Women in the Public Sphere" (2000), both available online. RLIN records copies at Harvard and Columbia.



KIERKEGAARD, SOREN. Sygdommen til Doden. En christelig psychologisk Udvikling til opbyggelse og opvækkelse  af Anti-Climacus; Udgivet af S. Kierkegaard. Kjobenhaven: C.A. Reitzels, 1849. 1st ed. [8], 136 pp. [Bound with:] KIERKEGAARD. Begrebet angest: en simple psychologisk-paapengende Overveielse i Retning af det dogmatiske Problem om  arvesynden af Virgilius Haufniensius [pseud.]. Undet oplag. Kjobenhavn: C.A. Reitzels, 1855. 2nd ed. [8], 172 pp. Together, 2 vols in 1. 8vo. Contemporary ½ leather and marbled boards, worn, spine shot. Text block tight and very good.   $750.00   Himmelstrup 119 and 69, respectively. Collects lifetime editions of Kierkegaard's two important "psychological" works.



KORTHOLT, CHRISTIAN. De tribus impostoribus magnis liber. Kiloni [Kiel]: J. Reumann 1680. 1st ed. Small 8vo. [16], 294 [i.e. 312] pp. Index. Contemporary vellum (dust-soiled), sprinkled edges. Sheets moderately browned, small hole on one leaf with loss of two letters. A very good copy.  $850.00   Rare. There are separate sections devoted to each of the  "three imposters": Herbert of Cherbury (pp. 4-92), Hobbes (pp. 93-139) and Spinoza (pp. 139-214), plus an Appendix (pp. 227-293) directed to Girolamo Cardano (1501-1576) and Herbert on the "Animalitate Hominis." van der Linde 287. Wolf 303. Brunet 3, col. 692, Graesse 4, p. 45, and Widener Shelflist all cite the 1701 edition (which added an important biographical sketch of Spinoza). Neither edition in Hoose Library catalog. The Karlruhe catalog records holdings of this 1680 edition at 9 institutions (including the British Library, Oxford and Manchester). RLIN and OCLC together add copies at Berkeley, NYPL, UCLA, Penn., and Linkoping Staatsbibliotek. 



(LOCKE.) BROUGHTON, JOHN. Psychologia: Or, an Account of the Nature of the Rational Soul. In Two Parts. The First, Being an Essay Towards Establishing the Receiv'd Doctrine, of an Immaterial and Consequently Immortal Substance, United to Human Body, upon Sufficient Grounds of Reason. The Second, A Vindication of that Receiv'd and Establish'd Doctrine, against a Late Book, call'd, Second Thoughts, &c. Wherein all the Authors Pretended Demonstrations to the Contrary, as Well Philosophical and Rational, as Scriptural, are Fully Refuted; Together with Occasional Remarks on his Way of Reasoning. To which is Annex'd, A Brief Confutation of his Whole Hypothesis. London: Printed by W[illiam] B[owyer] for T. Bennet, and A. Bosvile, 1703. 1st ed. 8vo. 40, [418], 14 pp. Contemporary paneled calf (minor wear to edges and corners), rebacked with spine label. Title browned at edges, Small stain on outer blank margins of 50 pages, trace of worming on last 2 leaves (not affecting the text).  SOLD   Yolton, John Locke: A Descriptive Biography C1703-1. “A sustained defence of the immateriality of the soul against Locke’s suggestion that matter might be made to think. [Broughton] [a]lso objected to the notion that immateriality was not necessary for immortality….  the supposition that  body can think reduces all phenomena to body and hence embraces corporealism and atheism.”—Yolton & Yolton, John Locke, A Reference Guide 1703-1. “The first part of this elaborate treatise contained numerous attacks upon Locke.”—Christophersen, page 52. Part II is directed at Second Thoughts Concerning Human Soul (1702), by the physician William Coward (see DNB), “one of the most radically materialistic pamphlets of the period” (Christophersen). Broughton’s work, in turn, elicited replies from Henry Layton (Observations on…Psychologia, 1703) and Samuel Bold (Discourse Concerning the Immateriality of the Soul, 1705). Locke had a copy of the present title in his library (Harrison & Laslett 495) as well as Layton’s tract (H & L 1704) and Coward’s 1704 sequel to Second Thoughts, entitled The Grand Essay (H & L 867). “Locke, in letters to [Anthony] Collins, speaks contemptuously both of  the 'Psychologia' and of Coward’s…'Grand Essay.'”—DNB (entry for Coward). All of which is an indication of the strong interest Locke took in the reception of his work to the very end of his life.



(LOCKE.) KING, LORD [PETER]. The Life of John Locke, With Extracts from His Correspondence, Journals, and Common-Place Books. London: Henry Colburn, 1829. 1st ed. 4to. xi, [1], 407, [1] pp. Portrait and facsimile (both a bit foxed). Handsome contemporary polished calf, boards gilt with floral borders within triple filet rules, rebacked with original gilt spine and red leather label laid on, marbled endpapers and edges. Boards scuffed, some wear to extremities, but binding tight and sound. Light, spotty foxing to title, text generally clean and fresh with good margins. Attractive contemporary engraved bookplate on front pastedown with later owner's label below, recent owner's blindstamp on rear blank.  $350.00  Yolton 328. Valuable, despite the editorial liberties and shortcomings, for containing much unpublished material and for making known the true riches of the Loveless collection of Locke manuscripts.



(LOTZE.) JONES, HENRY. A Critical Account of the Philosophy of Lotze. The Doctrine of Thought. Glasgow: James Maclehose & Sons, 1895. 1st ed. 8vo. xvi, 357 pp., plus 32 page Catalogue of the Publications of James Maclehose and Sons (Glasgow 1895) at end. Orig. cloth. Some foxing to title and endpapers, else a fine, bright copy.  $85.00   Passmore calls this Jones' "most important polemical work" and characterizes it as "a vigorous attempt, from a neo-Hegelian point of view, to stem the tide of Lotze's influence [in England]."



With Corrections in the Text by the Author and a Letter

MAINE (DE) BIRAN, (F.P.G.) Influence de l'Habitude sur la Faculté de Penser. Ouvrage qui a Remporté le Prix sur cette Question, Proposée par la Classe des Sciences Morales et Politiques de l'Institut National…. Paris: Henrichs, An XI [1803]. 1st ed. 8vo. xii, 402 pp. Contemporary etched calf, spine gilt in compartments with green morocco label, sprinkled edges. Some rubbing at joints and corners. Scattered, light pencil markings in text. A nice copy. With manuscript additions and corrections to the text in pen by the author. Plus an autograph letter (n.d., 12mo., 3 pp.)  signed "Maine-Biran" laid in.  SOLD  The sole book published under Maine de Biran's name during his lifetime. Only with the posthumous publication of collected editions by Cousin (1834) and, especially, the Oeuvres Inédites by Naville (3 volumes, 1859) did the arc and importance of Maine de Biran's work became clear.  He appears in this early work as a materialist representative of the Idealogues, a sensualist after the manner of Locke and Condillac. Gradually, however, he became dissatisfied with what he considered this overly passive conception of perception. "Maine de Biran's philosophical development can be summarized briefly as a movement toward a more and more detailed conviction that man's inward experience is (1) different from his outwardly experienced 'impressions,' and (2) an important source and basis of knowledge."—George Boas, in EP. "Altogether Biran's work presents a very remarkable specimen of deep metaphysical thinking directed by preference to the psychological aspect of perception."—EB 13.  The manuscript contributions here represent, for the most part, minor editorial corrections or additions to the text or notes (on about 30 pages). For example, "Cabanis" has been added to a footnote on page 209 and "et Diderot" to a citation of Condillac and Bossuet on page 385. On page 259, "…de la vie organique" has been corrected to "…de la vie physique." The most substantial note is an addition of about 20 words on page 218. The undated letter, written from "hotel [?]/rue St. Pierre/Montmarte/Paris 20 thermidor," is addressed by Maine de Biran to one Faugere, procureur imperial, Bergerac Dordogne (Maine de Biran's birthplace).



NADEN, CONSTANCE C.W.  Induction and Deduction: A Historical & Critical Sketch of Successive Philosophical Conceptions Respecting the Relations Between Inductive and Deductive Thought and Other Essays. Edited by R. Lewins, M.D. London: Bickers & Son, 1890. 1st ed. 8vo. xxv, [1], 202 pp. Frontis. Portrait. Publisher’s decorated cloth (light shelfwear). Occasional spotty foxing, date of 1912 neatly penned on front blank. Very good.  SOLD   Naden (1858-1889) is remembered chiefly, if at all, as a Victorian poet of feminist tendency, but she was also an accomplished linguist and well schooled in science and philosophy. A member of the Aristotelian Society, she was influenced especially by the Darwinism of Spencer. She became the disciple of Dr. Nevins: “The doctrine taught by both is called ‘Hylo-Idealism,’ and has been described as ‘monistic positivism.’ It is an attempt to give a metaphysical system in accordance with modern scientific thought. Miss Naden’s writings upon this topic, as an opponent of her theory (Dr. Dale) remarks, show great acuteness, gracefulness of style, and felicity of illustration. Her chief attempt in philosophy, however, the essay upon ‘Induction and Deduction,’ though of great promise as the work of a student, is based upon inadequate knowledge; and she died before her powers, obviously remarkable, had fully ripened.”—DNB. The present volume includes a memoir of Miss Naden by her friend Madeline Daniell. RLIN records copies at Michigan, Stanford and Princeton.



The Religion of Humanity

RUGE, ARNOLD. Die Religion unserer Zeit. Leipzig: Verlagsbureau, 1849. 1st ed. Square 12mo. [2], 92 pp. Contemporary black paste-paper boards with hand-lettered label. Paper worn away along hinges, spotty foxing throughout text. A very sound copy. Owner's signature dated 1850 on front flyleaf.  $425.00   Steinhauer 1698. As editor, philosopher, historian, poet, translator, in short, publicist, Ruge was an influential critic of the old order and a key figure in the spread of democratic liberalism throughout Europe in the mid 19th century. As elder statesman of the Young Hegelians, he helped to found the influential Hallische Jahrbücher für deutsche Kunst und Wissenschaft (1838-1843): "To this day German philosophy has nothing comparable to this journal which could equal it in critical forcefulness, effectiveness, and influence upon political theory."—Löwith. Following removal to Paris, Ruge served as co-editor with Marx of the Deutsche-Französche Jahrbücher "but had little sympathy with Marx's socialistic theories and soon left him."—EB 13. By 1849 Ruge had immigrated to England where he spent the remainder of his prolific life (translating Buckle's History of Civilization into German, for example). "Ruge's popular Die Religion unserer Zeit is meant as a derivation of the religion of humanism from the historical religions; in its style, as in its content, it is a precursor of Strauss's 'new faith.' But even in this humanistic attenuation Ruge's program is a direct consequence of Hegel's spiritualization of Christian ideas…." (Löwith). The work would appear to quite rare: the Karlsruhe database locates 4 copies: Hessischer Verbundkatalog; Universitätsbibliotek, Halle; Universitätsbibliotek, Greiswald; Herzog-August-Bibliotek, Wolfenbüttel. It was not found in the RLIN, OCLC, COPAC or British Library databases.



RUSSELL, BERTRAND.  A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz with an Appendix of Leading Passages. Cambridge: At the University Press, 1900. 1st ed. 8vo. xvi, [2], 311, [1] pp. Orig. dark blue cloth. Fine. $1,000  A collector's copy of Russell's third—and first purely philosophical—book.



SUNDERLAND, LaROY. Ideology: Mental Anæsthesia Self-Induced, Miraculous Cures Self-Made, Involution and Evolution in the Human Mind as in the Whole of Things. Volume I. [Bound with, as issued:] Ideology: The Romance and Miracle in Ideal Contagion and Mental Epidemics. Men Go Mad in Crowds. Volume II.  Boston, Mass.: Published by J.P. Mendum, 1885. Together, 2 volumes in 1, as issued. 1st ed. 8vo. vi, [2], 138; vii, [1], 200 pp., plus 12 page Catalogue of Liberal Books Published and For Sale by J.P. Mendum  (Boston: Published by J.P. Mendum, 1885) at end. Orig. cloth, light shelfwear. Contemporary owner’s signature on front fly and in gutter margin of one leaf of text. Very good.  $150.00  Scarce late publication by Sunderland, fervid abolitionist and advocate of a philosophy he termed Panthetism. The works here contain chapters on the South Sea and Mississippi bubbles, the Crusades, Christian Science, “the witchcraft madness, &c., plus numerous other events representing mass delusion.  A third volume of Ideology with the subtitle Nutrition, instinct, innervation, sensation, consciousness, memory, thinking, consecutive ideas was issued separately in 1887.  RLIN and OCLC together record volumes I-III at 5 institutions and RLIN adds a copy of volumes I-II (as here) at the California State Library. Mendum was a reformer and a noted publisher of works on freethought, free speech, botanic medicine, birth control, &c.



WHEWELL, WILLIAM. Lectures On the History of Moral Philosophy in England. London: John W. Parker and Son, 1852. 1st ed. 8vo. xxxii, 265 pp. Contemporary diced rose calf gilt, a.e.g. Binding a bit rubbed and faded with small wear to extremities, corner clipped from front blank. A sound copy, tight and clean. Contemporary engraved bookplate of a Harrow owner on front pastedown, recent owner's blindstamp on front blank.  $100.00   Comprises 18 lectures, the last six (pp. 188-265) being devoted to Bentham. Fourteen Additional Lectures were published in 1862. Whewell's "intuitionism"  is considered in detail in Mill's Utilitarianism (1863).